The University of Western Australia

UWA Staff Profile

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Kate Hammer

Asst/Prof Kate Hammer

Research Assistant Professor
School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Contact details
Address
School of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
The University of Western Australia (M504)
35 Stirling Highway
CRAWLEY WA 6009
Australia
Phone
+61 8 6383 4363
Fax
9346 2912
Email
katherine.hammer@uwa.edu.au
Personal homepage
http://www.pathology.uwa.edu.au/research/microbiology/tea-tree-oil-introduction
Location
PathWest Laboratory Medicine, PP Block, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands
Biography
Dr Kate Hammer completed her undergraduate Bachelor of Science at Murdoch University before coming to The University of Western Australia in 1994 to undertake a Post-Graduate Diploma of Science in microbiology. She then worked as a Research Assistant in the Tea Tree Oil group before starting her PhD on the anti-fungal activity of tea-tree oil and is now a Research Associate.
Key research
Dr Hammer is currently researching the possibility that Gram positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus, could become resistant to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Her tests so far have shown that the bacteria do not acquire resistance to tea tree oil, probably because it is such a complex essential oil. Tea tree oil has over 100 components, which may make it very difficult for organisms to evolve coping mechanisms.
Publications
Hammer KA, Carson CF, Dunstan JA, Hale J, Lehmann H, Robinson CJ, Prescott SL, Riley TV. 2008. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of five Taxandria fragrans oils in vitro. Microbiology & Immunology. In press. Accepted for publication 25 June 2008.
Hammer KA, Carson CF. Riley TV. 2008. Frequencies of resistance to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and rifampicin in Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 32: 170-3.
Carson CF, Hammer KA, Riley TV. 2006. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil: a review of antimicrobial and other medicinal properties. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 19(1): 50-62.
Messager S. Hammer KA. Carson CF. Riley TV. 2006. Sporicidal activity of tea tree oil. Australian Infection Control 11(4): 112-21.
Papadopoulos CJ, Carson CF, Hammer KA, Riley TV. 2006. Susceptibility of pseudomonads to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and components. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 58(2): 449-51.
Hammer KA, Carson CF. Riley TV, Nielsen JB. 2006. A review of the toxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Food & Chemical Toxicology 44(5): 616-25
Messager S. Hammer KA. Carson CF. Riley TV. 2005. Effectiveness of hand-cleansing formulations containing tea tree oil assessed ex vivo on human skin and in vivo with volunteers using European standard EN 1499. Journal of Hospital Infection. 59(3): 220-8.
Messager S. Hammer KA. Carson CF. Riley TV. 2005. Assessment of the antibacterial activity of tea tree oil using the European EN 1276 and EN 12054 standard suspension tests. Journal of Hospital Infection. 59(2): 113-25.
Longbottom CJ. Carson CF. Hammer KA. Mee BJ. Riley TV. 2004. Tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil is associated with the outer membrane and energy-dependent cellular processes. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 54(2): 386-92.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2004. Antifungal effects of tea tree oil and components against Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 53(6): 1081-5.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2003. Antifungal activity of the components of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Journal of Applied Microbiology 95: 853-60.
Hammer KA, Dry L, Johnson M, Michalak EM, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2003. Susceptibility of oral bacteria to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 18: 389-92
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2002. In vitro activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against dermatophytes and other filamentous fungi. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 50: 195-9.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2000. Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil inhibits germ tube formation by Candida albicans. Medical Mycology 38: 354 - 61.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2000. In vitro activities of ketoconazole, econazole, miconazole and Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil against Malassezia species. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 44: 467-9.
Hammer KA & Riley TV. 2000. Precipitate production by some Malassezia species on Dixon's agar. Medical Mycology 38: 105-7.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 1999. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Journal of Applied Microbiology 86: 985-90.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 1999. Influence of organic matter, cations and surfactants on the antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil in vitro. Journal of Applied Microbiology 86: 446-52.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 1999. In vitro susceptibility of lactobacilli and organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis to Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 43: 196.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 1998. In-vitro activity of essential oils, in particular Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil and tea tree oil products, against Candida species. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 42: 591-5.
Carson CF, Hammer KA & Riley TV. 1998. A brief review of the antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). Mikologia Lekarska 5: 205-7
Hammer KA, Carson CF and Riley TV. 1997. In vitro susceptibility of Malassezia furfur to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia. Journal of Medical and Veterinary Mycology 35: 375-7.
Carson CF, Hammer KA & Riley TV. 1997. Use of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) in cutaneous fungal infections. Journal of British Podiatric Medicine 52: iv-v.
Carson CF, Hammer KA & Riley TV. 1996. In vitro activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia against Streptococcus spp. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 37: 1177-8.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 1996. Susceptibility of transient and commensal skin flora to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). American Journal of Infection Control 24: 186-9.
Carson CF, Hammer KA & Riley TV. 1995. Broth microdilution method for determining the susceptibility of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus to the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil). Microbios 82: 181-5.

Other publications and reports

Carson CF, Papadopoulos CJ, Hammer KA, Riley TV. 2005. Tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to tea tree oil. RIRDC project UWA-79A. RIRDC publication 05/126; ISBN 1 74151 189 5; ISSN 1440-6845, 42pp.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2005. Nature's antiseptic. Inform AOCS 16(9): 546-7.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2004. Effects of tea tree oil on Staphylococcus aureus virulence factors. RIRDC project UWA-80A. RIRDC publication 05/115; ISBN 1 74151 178 X; ISSN 1440-6845, 34pp.
Carson CF, Hammer KA & Riley TV. 2003. Compilation and review of published and unpublished tea tree oil literature. RIRDC Project UWA-75A, RIRDC publication R03/019, 95pp.
Hammer KA, Dry L, Johnson M, Michalak EM, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2002. Antimicrobial activity of tea tree oil against oral microorganisms. RIRDC Project UWA-55A, RIRDC publication R03/019, 23pp.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2002. The antifungal activity of tea tree oil in vitro. RIRDC Project UWA-58A, RIRDC publication R03/020, 69pp.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2001. Anti-fungal activity of tea tree oil. RIRDC project UWA 50A, RIRDC publication R01/11, 25pp.
Van Heerden P, Niazov S, Webb A, Carson C, Hammer K, Riley T, Parsons R, Tinley P. 2001. The effect of tea tree oil on pedal flora. Australasian Journal of Podiatric Medicine 35: 103-6.
Hammer KA, Carson CF & Riley TV. 2000. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts. Simply Essential 36: 18-22.
Funding received
Raine Medical Research Foundation
Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation
Memberships
Australian Society for Microbiology (Fellow)
American Society for microbiology
Phytochemical Society of Europe
Society for Applied Microbiology (UK)
Teaching
Dr Hammer lectures on alternative antimicrobials and supervises several PhD students.
Useful links
Tea Tree Oil Research Group
http://www.pathology.uwa.edu.au/research/microbiology/tea-tree-oil-introduction

Current projects
Collaborators

Dr Christine Carson, Microbiology, UWA
Professor Thomas Riley, Microbiology, UWA
RFCD
270300
Research profile
Research profile and publications
 

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Last updated:
Monday, 1 October, 2012 4:15 PM

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